A Look at the 2019 Canada Food Guide

Canada’s food guide

The 2019 Canada Food Guide is the most health evidence based Guide to date, with a comprehensive and inclusive approach to food selection. The diversity of food options, including offerings for vegetarian and vegan diets, with decreased emphasis on meat, eggs and dairy products, provides more information for Canadians towards making healthy food choices.

The Toronto Star, July 21, 2019 editorial made a plea for not politicizing or pandering to food lobby efforts to change the current Guide and ignoring the science linking diet to many preventable diseases.

On September 25, 2019 the Toronto Star article “Saturated fat is bad for your heart. Or is it?” challenged the recommendations of the Guide, pointing to the often contradictory information linking dietary fats with cardiovascular disease. Do reductions in butter, cheese and red meat reduce disease risk and promote good health? An abundance of information shows that those who consume the highest levels of fresh fruits and vegetables reduce their risk for a wide number of diseases, including cardiovascular, as well as reducing death from a variety of causes. Using only cholesterol levels as the biomarker for cardiovascular health is misguided, as other measures such as those for inflammation and blood coagulation provide better insight for vascular health as well as for measurement of risk for other diseases.

A whole food, high fibre, plant-focused diet is known to provide benefits for:

  • Blood sugar regulation
  • Weight management
  • Gut health, including motility and support of the gut microflora
  • Cancer risk
  • Cognitive disorders
  • as well as moderating cholesterol levels and altering cardiovascular risk

No whole food is essentially a ‘bad’ food. Portion levels and a broad selection of food from all categories may be key determinants in what distinguishes a healthy diet from one that is not. Most authorities agree that the Mediterranean Diet is a good dietary template in modifying risk for a number of diseases including cancer, diabetes, obesity, as well as cardiovascular risk.

Additionally, consideration should be given to climate and environmental impacts related to food production. Planetary health is the foundation for everyone’s health. High carbon footprint foods such as meats, cheese and eggs should have lesser focus in most diets, with greater importance given to healthy foods that can be more affordably produced and available to everyone.

Good food supports good health. Karma stocks a wide variety of fresh, local, healthy foods on our shelves! Diet diversity and whole, unprocessed foods are the foundations for healthy eating. The new Canada Food Guide is setting the right direction for promoting health.

 

 

Ask Reece

Dear Reece,

I joined Karma Co-op recently as I’m trying to eat more fresh food in the hopes of losing a few pounds. I’ve been stocking up on natural groceries, seeing the dietitian regularly, and watching videos from my dietician about the dangers of eating processed food and eating out. It’s been three months, and nothing has changed: my dietitian is frustrated with me, I can’t stick to the meal plans he sets up, most of the produce I buy goes bad before I use it, and I just end up feeling guilty. I want to change my behaviour and am trying, but somehow it never quite pans out. How can I improve my eating habits and lose weight?

From,

A New Member

 

Dear New Member,

First, I am sorry to hear that your dietitian is frustrated with you. Health professionals should be equipped to provide support and information, not judgement.

I took a look at what evidence-based studies have to say about changing eating behaviour, and it’s fascinating, complex, and sometimes counter-intuitive. ​For example, a 2016 paper writes that “health consciousness” — having information about the health effects of food — does not correlate with healthy behaviour. Knowing what is healthy doesn’t prompt body-size change in most cases, and, at best, only shows a weak association, such as increased consumption of organic food. Actions related to health, like meal-planning, also don’t correlate to improved eating but may contribute to anti-fat bias​ (Wood 2016).

An article your dietitian could take a look at talks about the causes of food choice behaviour — examining the variables other than intention that affect what we choose to eat, including beliefs, marketing, food literacy, taste, culture, and more (Scott 2017).

So, if intention and health education don’t work to change eating behaviour, guess what does? Being curious (i.e., non-judgmental) and in the present, and paying attention to the process of eating. Yes, it’s mindfulness, and yes, that can feel a little like cheesy pop-psychology, but it’s been shown to work to change eating behaviour in relatively large trials (Hendrickson 2017). Plus, it’s a lot more inclusive and less shame-inducing than the alternatives. I would add that eating habits are only one small part of what affects weight: genes, intestinal microbiome, and other factors play important roles; though, contrary to popular belief, exercise does not (Science Vs. podcast episode).

My point of view? Relax about weight/weight loss, focus on enjoying quality food, and avoid people (especially professionals) who are judgmental about weight.

 

Ask Reece is the e-Chronicle’s advice column by Karma working member Reece Steinberg, a health sciences librarian and food enthusiast. Reece provides advice with input from a variety of sources, including anything from traditional etiquette columns to peer-reviewed scientific articles. He answers Karma member questions about dietary lifestyles, food science and fermentation, eating etiquette, and anything else food-related. Please email your questions to askreece@karmacoop.org.

Meals on a budget: a day in the life

 

The challenge: to produce healthy meals on a tight budget, using all-Karma ingredients

Breakfast: super morning oats

Total cost per serving: $1.38
Prep. time: 12 minutes
Ingredients (for one serving):

½ cup bulk organic rolled oats — $0.16
Small handful of bulk organic nuts/seeds (e.g. walnuts, filberts, pumpkin seeds) — $0.57
Small handful of bulk organic black currants — $0.15
Drizzle of bulk Temple’s Sugar Bush maple syrup — $0.20
Sprinkle of bulk ground cinnamon — $0.05
Splash of milk (of your choice — ours is Hewitt’s goat milk) or yogurt — $0.25

Directions:

1. Bring 1 cup of water to a boil. Add oats, smallest pinch of salt. Stir. Reduce to medium heat.
2. Immediately add the nuts/seeds and currants. Stir.
3. Cook for about 10 minutes, stirring occasionally.
4. Add the syrup, cinnamon, and milk/yogurt.

Lunch: Karma-style instant ramen noodle soup

Total cost per serving: $4.07 with kimchi ($3.82 without)
Prep. time: 8 min.

Ingredients (for one serving):

1 package Lotus Foods Jade Green Ramen — $2.49
1 small bok choy (or ½ large bok choy) — $0.75
1 Homestead free-range egg — $0.58
(optional) 1 tbsp. Ontario Natural Food Co-op Organic Kimchi Style Sauerkraut — $0.25

Directions:

1. Follow directions on package to make ramen.
2. While ramen noodles are cooking, boil the egg in a separate pot until medium soft.
3. Break apart bok choy and slice leaves lengthwise. Add to water when ramen noodles are halfway done.
4. Serve in your favourite soup bowl. Add boiled egg and (optional) kimchi.

Dinner: fish on kale and squash

Total cost per serving: $5.23
Prep. time: 50 min.

Ingredients (for four servings):

1 Kabocha squash or 2 small acorn squash — $3.00
1 bunch organic kale — $3.50
2 small portions frozen wild caught salmon — $13.14
Zest of 1 lemon — $0.50
Sprinkle of dill — $0.15
(optional) 1-2 tsp. coconut sugar or maple syrup — $0.10
Olive oil

Directions:

1. Preheat oven to 350°F.
2. Chop squash in half. Drizzle olive oil inside squash and on pan. Place halves upside down on pan. Bake for approximately 40 minutes. Remove cooked squash from skin and mash with a fork. Add optional toppings.
3. Bring large pot of water to a boil. Blanche chopped kale in water for 3–4 minutes. Remove kale and rinse under cold water.
4. Place thawed fish in a pan with a little olive oil. Cook fish on low-medium heat with lid on. Add lemon zest and sprinkle dill to taste. When internal temp is 70°C (158°F), it’s ready. Cut each cooked portion of fish in half. Check for bones.
5. First plate the squash, and then the kale, and lastly place the fish on top. It looks pretty and tastes good!

by Kate Tessier

First published in The Chronicle (Spring 2016)

Ask Reece: Hosting a dinner party & Keeping herbs fresh

Dear Reece,

I am planning to host a dinner party, but even with a short list of friends, I will be accommodating one vegetarian, one vegan, at least one person who has celiac disease (plus some who are wheat/gluten-sensitive), and various allergies. How can I even begin to prepare a menu? I’d like to make an elegant but simple meal without a million different options and without spending an inordinate amount of time or money, or having to learn a lot of new cooking methods.

Sincerely,

Up to Here With Different Diets

 

Dear Up,

This is not an uncommon issue. Many people have health, ethical, and medical reasons for restricting the foods they eat. When you add friends who may switch from Paleo to Sirtfood one week to the next, it can get complicated.

According to my guru, the sassy and long-suffering etiquette expert Miss Manners, it’s the responsibility of the host to inquire about dietary restrictions and provide something for everyone, but it is not impolite to serve dishes that some guests can’t eat.

I have a few guidelines that work for me:

  • Inquire about food restrictions and keep a list. For larger groups, simply offer some gluten-free and vegan dishes. Consider leaving common serious allergens — peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and seafood — off the menu.
  • Choose how much or how little you are willing and able to provide accommodation. Then communicate with guests so they know what to expect. That plant-based dish you were so excited to find among your family recipes may be less enjoyable to the vegan friend who ate in advance. Alternatively, learning that a severe allergen is on the menu may alert an acquaintance that they won’t safely be able to partake in dessert due to potential cross-contamination.
  • Mentally group overlapping food restrictions. Vegan food works for vegetarians and people with milk/lactose intolerances, gluten-free foods are safe for those with wheat allergies, etc. This means fewer diet options to keep track of.
  • Make food you know. If you cook in a certain style, make a number of dishes that fit that style (i.e., one with meat, one gluten-free, two vegetarian, etc.) rather than try to make different versions of the same dish tailored to each individual diet. This will ensure reliably delicious food, and provide variety to many guests.

Remember that entertaining is not the ideal time to experiment. Almost all cuisines and cooking styles include some dishes that work for all diets, or can easily be modified to do so. Take a look at what you currently like to make, and you might be surprised. Even meat-heavy cuisines often have some hearty plant-based side dishes that can serve as mains. Very few styles of cooking rely so heavily on a single ingredient that it’s hard to find dishes without gluten or the allergens listed above. Seasonal fruit-based desserts are simple, satisfying, and fit into most diets. Examples include winter pears or apples in mulled juice or wine, or summer berries with cream (on the side).

Keep detailed recipe notes or ingredient lists of everything you make or buy so you can answer guests’ questions. For larger groups labelling dishes can assist guests.

Additionally, certain types of spread provide some flexibility in what guests choose to eat.

  • Tapas spread: A spread of many simple tapas, or canapés, with other small dishes in whatever style you choose.
  • DIY-style meals: Many styles of foods let guests choose which ingredients they want to use. Examples include shish kabob, barbecue, hot pots, rice bowls (a dressing, base of rice or noodles, and an assortment of veggies and proteins to add on top), gourmet grilled cheese and grilled veggies (borrow a couple extra sandwich presses), DIY salad rolls, and many more. Avoid cross-contamination by providing separate serving tools for different diets.

Relax, enjoy yourself, and remember that dinner parties are really about the company (and sometimes the wine).

Sincerely,

Reece

Martin J, Martin N, and Martin J. (2017, January 29). No Host Can Hope to Please Guests With Multiple Food Restrictions. Retrieved from http://www.uexpress.com/miss-manners/2017/1/29/2/no-host-can-hope-to-please


Dear Reece,

What’s the best way to keep my herbs fresh?

Sincerely,

Wilt Ed

 

Dear Wilt,

Great question. Fresh herbs can really help provide some flavour variety in simple meals, and having a few on hand is key. As a bonus, herbs such as sage, rosemary, and thyme may play a role in helping to prevent a variety of chronic illnesses, even when eaten in small quantities.

If you don’t have easy access to an herb garden, keeping store-bought herbs as fresh as possible in the fridge is the next best thing. I’ve found that herbs last longest if I cut off the bottoms of the stems, stick them in a glass of cold water (like a bouquet of flowers), and loosely cover with a plastic bag before refrigerating.

Hope that helps,

Reece

Opara EI and Chohan M. Culinary Herbs and Spices: Their Bioactive Properties, the Contribution of Polyphenols and the Challenges in Deducing Their True Health Benefits. International Journal Of Molecular Sciences. 2014;15(10):19183–19201.


Ask Reece is the Chronicle’s new advice column by Karma working member Reece Steinberg, a health sciences librarian and food enthusiast. Reece provides advice with input from a variety of sources including anything from traditional etiquette columns to peer-reviewed scientific articles. He answers Karma member questions about dietary lifestyles, food science and fermentation, eating etiquette, and anything else food-related. Please submit your questions to questions to Reece by email to chronicle@karmacoop.org with the subject line “Ask Reece.”